\ˌanɪksˈe͡ɪʃənz], \ˌanɪksˈeɪʃənz], \ˌa_n_ɪ_k_s_ˈeɪ_ʃ_ə_n_z]\
Definitions of ANNEXATIONS
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After the adoption of the Federal Constitution the different States ceded all the territories to the west of them and included in their original charters, to the Union. Many of these territories nominally extended to the Pacific coast, but in practice, only as far as the Mississippi River. Louisiana and the Floridas were then under Spanish dominion and thus the navigation of the Mississippi River was blocked, causing great inconvenience to settlers west of the Alleghanies. It had ever been the fixed policy of Spain to exclude all foreign commerce from this stream. She had refused to treat with Jay upon this point in 1780-82. In 1786 the United States withdrew its demand for a navigation treaty, but the clamorings of the western settlers caused their renewal, and, in 1795, Thomas Pinckney, Envoy Extraordinary, negotiated a treaty of friendship and boundaries, by which free navigation of the Mississippi was opened, as well as the port of New Orleans. In 1800 Spain retroceded Louisiana to France, to which country it had belonged until the peace of 1763. The treaty of 1795 was abrogated and the West was again in a ferment. It was proposed in the Senate that the President order out 50,000 militia and capture New Orleans. Instead James Monroe was sent to co-operate with Robert R. Livingston for the purchase of New Orleans in 1803. A prospective war with England induced France to sell all Louisiana, and the purchase was negotiated for $15,000,000 on April 30, 1803, the treaty being signed by Livingston and Monroe for the Union, and Barbe-Marbois for France. By this step Jefferson obtained for the United States 1,171,931 square miles of territory, comprising Alabama and Mississippi south of parallel 31, all Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska, Dakota, Montana, Minnesota west of the Mississippi, most of Kansas, a large part of Colorado, and Wyoming. The Federalists angrily attacked this move of Jefferson as being utterly unconstitutional, and the President did not attempt to defend himself, but sought indemnity. Florida was next annexed. The United States claimed Florida, but Spain denied having ceded it to France with Louisiana. In 1810 the people of west Florida declared their independence. Governor Claiborne, of New Orleans, was sent by the President to take possession of Mobile and West Florida. In 1818 Spain was much annoyed by a war with the Seminoles, and accordingly a treaty was concluded February 22, 1819, by which Florida was ceded to the Union in consideration of the payment of $5,000,000 for Spain in private claims by citizens of the States. Texas had been claimed by both France and Spain, but after the revolt of Mexico was in reality under Mexican rule. In 1836 Texas seceded and declared herself free, defeating the Mexican General Santa Anna, but was not recognized by Mexico. The United States, England, France and Belgium recognized the new republic. Many politicians favored the annexation of Texas and in 1844 Calhoun, Secretary of State under Tyler, actually concluded a treaty to this effect, which was rejected by the Senate. After considerable manceuvring and political intrigue, a joint resolution was passed in the Senate February 27, 1845, and in the House February 28, and Texas was admitted to the Union. As a result of the Mexican War and by the payment of $15,000,000 and $3,250,000 in claims of private citizens against Mexico, California, New Mexico, Utah, Nevada, and part of Arizona and Colorado, were added to the Union in 1848 (545,783 square miles). By the Gadsen Treaty in 1853 the southern part of Arizona, 45,535 square miles, was purchased from Mexico. Alaska, 577,390 square miles, was ceded to the United States for $7,200,000 on June 30, 1867, by Russia.
By John Franklin Jameson