\njuːmˈə͡ʊni͡ə], \njuːmˈəʊniə], \n_j_uː_m_ˈəʊ_n_iə]\
Definitions of PNEUMONIA
- 2010 - New Age Dictionary Database
- 1913 - Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
- 2010 - Medical Dictionary Database
- 1919 - The Winston Simplified Dictionary
- 1898 - Warner's pocket medical dictionary of today.
- 1899 - The american dictionary of the english language.
- 1874 - Etymological and pronouncing dictionary of the English language
- 1920 - A practical medical dictionary.
- 1894 - The Clarendon dictionary
- 1919 - The Concise Standard Dictionary of the English Language
- 1914 - Nuttall's Standard dictionary of the English language
- 1846 - Medical lexicon: a dictionary of medical science
- 1898 - American pocket medical dictionary
- 1916 - Appleton's medical dictionary
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By William Dodge Lewis, Edgar Arthur Singer
By William R. Warner
By Stormonth, James, Phelp, P. H.
By Stedman, Thomas Lathrop
By William Hand Browne, Samuel Stehman Haldeman
By James Champlin Fernald
By Nuttall, P.Austin.
The chief symptoms of pneumonia are: - pyrexia, accompanied by pain, sometimes obtuse, at others pungent,-in some part of the thorax; pulse more or less quick and hard, according to the violence and extent of the local disorder; pain, aggravated by the cough, which, with dyspnoea, exists throughout the disease. At first, the expectoration is difficult and painful; but, in the course of a few days, it becomes free, and the oppression of breathing is mitigated. When the inflammation, instead of going off by resolution, passes on to suppuration, rigors are experienced; the respiration becomes more oppressed, but less painful, and a sense of weight is felt in one of the pleurae. Pneumonia may, also, terminate by gangrene-but this rarely happens,- by induration and by hepatization. Physical Signs. First Stage, (F.) Engouement. Diminution of the sound is generally observed over the affected part on percussion; auscultation exhibits an equal, dry, crepitating rale, which is best heard at the close of a deep inspiration, and on coughing. The respiratory murmur is intermingled with the crepitant rale, or it may be absent. In the neighbourhood of the affected parts it is natural or puerile. The voice and cough are rather more resonant than usual. Second Stage, (F.) Hepatisation rouge. When hepatization has occurred, the motion of the affected side is impeded, and immediately above the sternum and in the corresponding triangular space on either side, there is often an evident depression. Percussion is dull over the affected part in every position of the patient. On auscultation, the crepitation is found to be replaced by bronchial respiration. The respiratory murmur is louder in the other portions of the lung, the voice and cough are more resonant, and the heart's action is more distinct. Third Stage, (F.) Hepatisation grise. When suppuration supervenes, the same signs persist; but usually the voice and cough are less resonant, and a coarse, mucous rale is heard. When gangrenous or suppurative cavities are formed, they present the ordinary signs. The prognosis must be guarded. It is not a disease which we can always subdue. Great extent of inflammation; very considerable oppression; orthopnoea, and difficult expectoration are unfavourable symptoms. The most active treatment is of course necessary. General bleeding forms the sheet anchor,-employed so as to make a decided impression on the system, and repeated, if necessary; local blood-letting; nauseating doses of antimonials; purgatives; and when the violence of the inflammation has been got under, - counter-irritants, Ac. Chronic pneumonia sometimes succeeds the acute, and, at others, occurs accidentally. It must be managed on general principles. Small bleedings, especially locally; and counter-irritants of all kinds are indicated.
By Robley Dunglison
Word of the day
- A German historian and poet; born in Neidenburg, East Prussia, Jan. 19, 1821; died at Munich, May 1, 1891. He studied severely Konigsberg home, wrote essays of deep scholarship; "Socialistic Elements Goethe's Wilhelm Meister"; tragedy, "The Death Tiberius", the ripest historical learning; "Corsica"; other most authoritative books travel description, based on close personal study. also "Euphorion", an epic, poems high repute. But his works, unsurpassed learning vivid realization spirit their times, are commanding monument genius. City Rome Middle Ages", "Lucretia Borgia", "Urban VIII"., Monuments Popes", "Athenais", need be named.