\mˌa͡ɪtəkˈɒndɹi͡ə], \mˌaɪtəkˈɒndɹiə], \m_ˌaɪ_t_ə_k_ˈɒ_n_d_ɹ_iə]\
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Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
By DataStellar Co., Ltd
By Stedman, Thomas Lathrop
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- Belonging to, or characteristic of, a system of elementary education which combined manual training with other instruction, advocated and practiced by Jean Henri Pestalozzi (1746-1827), Swiss teacher. An advocate or follower the system of Pestalozzi. pes-ta-lot'si-an, adj. pertaining to graduated object-teaching as originated by Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (1745-1827).