\kˈɪdnɪ], \kˈɪdnɪ], \k_ˈɪ_d_n_ɪ]\
Definitions of KIDNEY
- 2010 - New Age Dictionary Database
- 1913 - Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
- 1920 - A practical medical dictionary.
- 1899 - The american dictionary of the english language.
- 1894 - The Clarendon dictionary
- 1919 - The Concise Standard Dictionary of the English Language
- 1914 - Nuttall's Standard dictionary of the English language
- 1846 - Medical lexicon: a dictionary of medical science
- 1898 - American pocket medical dictionary
- 1916 - Appleton's medical dictionary
- 1871 - The Cabinet Dictionary of the English Language
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Habit; disposition; sort; kind.
By Oddity Software
Habit; disposition; sort; kind.
By Noah Webster.
One of the two organs which excrete the urine. The kidneys are bean-shaped organs, about 4 1/2 in. in length, 2 in. in width, and 1 1/4 in. in thickness, lying on either side of the spinal column, behind the peritoneum, about opposite the twelfth thoracic and first three lumbar vertebrae. At the inner edge of each kidney is a concave depression, the hylus, where the vessels and nerves enter and leave the organs and where the ureter emerges; the hylus leads into the renal sinus, a hollow containing the pelvis and calyces and the branching blood-vessels. The kidney is enclosed in a fibrous envelope, the capsule, which dips into the sinus at the hilus. The substance of the organ is divided into cortex and medulla; the former is darker colored and more granular in appearance than the latter; it contains the Malpighian corpuscles and most of the convoluted tubules; the medulla is lighter in color and striated and contains the majority of the straight tubules; it is formed of the pyramids whose bases rest in the cortex and whose apices are the renal papillae at which point the central collecting tubule opens into a calyx, this in turn emptying into the pelvis of the kidney from which the water passes into the ureter and so reaches the urinary bladder. The pyramids are made up of tubules; each tubule begins at the glomerulus, or Malpighian corpuscle, in the cortex; it is first convoluted, then enters the pyramid, passing down toward the papilla, near which it turns back on itself, the turn being called Henle's loop, it then ascends to the cortex, where it is again convoluted (being called the irregular tubule), and returns to the pyramid in the center of which it empties into the straight collecting tube, which terminates, usually after uniting with others, at the apex of the papilla. Projections of masses of tubules pass up into the cortex, being known as medullary rays, while the cortical substance often passes down between the pyramids, forming the so-called columns of Berlin; the cortical substance between the medullary rays is also called the labyrinth.
By Stedman, Thomas Lathrop
By Daniel Lyons
By William Hand Browne, Samuel Stehman Haldeman
By James Champlin Fernald
By Nuttall, P.Austin.
The kidneys or reins are the secretory organs of the urine. They are two glands, situate deeply, - the one on the right, and the other on the left side- in the hypochondres: at the sides of the lumbar vertebrae; behind the peritoneum; and in the midst of an abundant, fatty areolar tissue. The kidney is of a reddish-brown colour; oval form; and flattened on two surfaces. It has, at its internal margin, a deep fissure, by which the renal vessels and nerves enter or quit the organ, and the ureter issues. It resembles, pretty accurately, the haricot or kidney-bean. Two substances are readily distinguishable in it; - the outer, secerning, cortical, glandular or vascular, which secretes the urine; and the inner, tubular, medullary, uriniferous, conoidal or radiated, which appears under the form of small cones or unequal papillae or mammillae, each resulting from the union of small capillary tubes, adherent by one of their extremities to the cortical substance; and opening, by the other, at the summit of the cone, into calices, a species of membranous tubes, more or less numerous, which transmit the urine of the papillae to the pelvis. By the pelvis is meant a small, membranous sac, of an irregularly oval shape, at the base of which are the orifices of the calices, and the other extremity of which is continuous with the ureter. The kidney is surrounded by a fibrous membrane proper to it, Perinephâ€™rus. It has been shown by Mr. Bowman and others that the renal artery is distributed to the corpora Malpighiana, forming a pellet of convolutions, which is received into a flask-like dilatation of the ureter- Bowman's Capsule, and through which- it is conceived- the watery portion of the urine is separated. The blood then becomes venous, and is distributed by different veins- portal veins of the kidney- to the convoluted tubes through which the proper urine is secreted. Hence the blood passes into the renal vein. The intermediate vessels between the Malpighian bodies and the convoluted tubes have been termed the Portal System of the Kidney.
By Robley Dunglison
By Willam Alexander Newman Dorland
A gland for the secretion of urine, situated one in each loin, at the side of the vertebral column at the back part of the abdominal cavity behind the peritoneum. They are opposite the last thoracic and first two or three lumbar vertebrae, each being in contact with the 12th rib. They are supported by their vessels and surrounding connective tissue. In man they are about 4 inches long, 2 1/2 inches broad, and 1 1/2 inch thick. The right is a little lower than the left, the latter being longer and thinner.
By Smith Ely Jelliffe