\sˈɪfəlɪs], \sˈɪfəlɪs], \s_ˈɪ_f_ə_l_ɪ_s]\
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sif'i-lis, n. a markedly contagious, infective, and inoculable disease, capable of being transmitted to the offspring, propagated by direct contagion or by the transmission of the virus through some vessel or medium which has recently been contaminated--most commonly caused by impure sexual intercourse.--n. SYPHILIS[=A]'TION.--v.t. SYPH'ILISE, to attempt to inoculate the system with the virus of syphilis as a preventive and curative measure.--adj. SYPHILIT'IC.--n. SYPHILOG'RAPHY, the description of syphilis.--adj. SYPH'ILOID, relating to syphilis.--ns. SYPHILOL'OGIST, one versed in syphilology; SYPHILOL'OGY, the knowledge of syphilis; SYPHIL[=O]'MA, a syphilitic tumour; SYPHILOPH[=O]'BIA, a morbid dread of contracting syphilis. [The word is borrowed from the name of a figure in Fracastoro's poem, Syphilidis Libri III.]
By Thomas Davidson
[New Latin] A chronic contagious disease communicated usually by venereal infection; beginning as a local manifestation (chancre) at the site of infection, and afterward extending through the lymphatics to the skin, mucous membranes, and deeper tissues (Constitutional s.). The medium of infection if thought to be a micro-organism (Bacillus syphilidis). The primary lesion (chancre) develops ten to thirty or forty days (period of incubation) after infection. It consists of a hard papule or of an ulcer or abrasion with indurated base and scanty secretion which is not auto-inoculable. The neighboring lymphatic glands are swollen and indurated, but are painless, do not ulcerate, and return gradually to the normal state. The primary lesion in also painless, and disappears without leaving any trace. This constitutes the primary stage of s. (Primary s.). The symptoms of the secondary stage (Secondary s.) begin in from six weeks to three months, and consist of fever (Syphilic fever) and constitutional disturbance; polymorphous, copper-colored cutaneous eruptions (Secondary syphilides) unaccompanied by pain or itching; mucous patches; alopecia; iritis; and periosteal and arthritic pains. The tertiary stage (Tertiary s.) begins in from six months to two years after infection, and is characterized by lesions of the deeper parts (internal viscera, bones, arteries, and nerve-tissue), consisting of nodular new growths (gummata) which produce atrophy by pressure and then break down; cutaneous eruptions (Tertiary syphilides) consisting of scaly papules, large flat pustules (syphilitic ecthyma), tubercles, and bullae (rupia), which show a tendency to deep ulceration; and deep ulcerative lesions of the mucous membranes also are common. Constitutional s. in often accompanied by a state of anaemia and cachexia (Syphilitic cachexia). S. may be transmitted to the fetus in utero, causing its death or the development in it of s. (Congenital s., Hereditary s., Inherited s.), marked by emaciation, cutaneous eruptions, coryza, parenchymatous keratitis, Hutchinsonâ€™s teeth, and craniotabes. Treatment of s.: mercury (internally, hypodermically iron and cod-liver oil) in syphilitic cachexia; iodoform and mercurials locally. Equine s., dourine.
By Alexander Duane
By Sir Augustus Henry
By Willam Alexander Newman Dorland
A specific, inoculable, constitutional disease, which in its earlier stage presents symptoms of systemic intoxication analogous to the symptoms of acute infectious fevers, especially the exanthemata, and in its later stage presents circumscribed lesions of many of the structures of the body, which have characteristics like tuberculosis and leprosy. It is propagated most often by sexual intercourse, less commonly by contaminated hands, or utensils, and sometimes by inheritance. The specific organism causing it is the Treponema pallidum, originally called Spirochaeta pallida. The course of the disease is marked by: 1. The first period of incubation, from the time of infection to the appearance of the initial lesion, from 12 to 21 days. 2. The primary stage, from the appearance of the initial lesion to the development of the skin lesions, from 40 to 45 days. 3. The secondary stage, from the appearance of the skin lesions (as a rule ushered in by mild fever) until the disappearance of evidences of an active constitutional infecting disease. 4. The tertiary stage, after the disappearance of the evidence of general infection the development of circumscribed gummatous lesions. This last stage may be wanting.
By Smith Ely Jelliffe
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