\flˈɒɹɪdə], \flˈɒɹɪdə], \f_l_ˈɒ_ɹ_ɪ_d_ə]\
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By Princeton University
By DataStellar Co., Ltd
By Sir Augustus Henry
was acquired by the treaty with Spain of February 22, 1819, which was not finally ratified by Spain until 1821. It was first discovered by Ponce de Leon, a Spaniard, in 1513, on Easter day, whence its name. It was explored by Narvaez in 1528, and by De Soto in 1539. In 1564 a settlement was made near Florida by French Huguenots under Laudonniere, but in the following year Melendez sailed from Spain to exterminate the heretics; and having founded St. Augustine, 1565, massacred the entire French colony. The Spaniards held Florida until 1763, when they exchanged it with England for Cuba. In 1783 England gave Florida back to Spain in exchange for the Bahama Islands. In 1795 the territory west of the Perdido was ceded to France, and passed into the possession of the United States with the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. During the War of 1812 the government of Florida was weak, and the State became a refuge for fugitive slaves and Indians. The Governor of Georgia sent a force against them, which increased the disorder. In 1818 General Jackson invaded Florida, attacked the Seminoles and captured Pensacola, which was restored to Spain. Ceded by Treaty of 1819, in 1822 Florida became a territory of the United States, and in 1845 it was admitted as a State. In 1835-44 a war with the Seminoles resulted in their removal to the Indian Territory. From 1845 to 1852 the State was controlled by the Whigs, when it became Democratic. An ordinance of secession was passed by a State Convention, January 10, 1861. It was restored to its full standing as a State on June 25, 1868. From this time until 1876 the Republicans controlled the State. In that year the dispute over the electoral vote was decided by the Electoral Commission at Washington in favor of the Republicans. Since 1876 the State has been Democratic. In 1869 Alabama offered $1,000,000 for West Florida, and a popular vote in that part of the State voted in favor of the annexation to Alabama, but it was not accomplished. The present Constitution was made in 1868. The population of the State in 1845 was 54,477; in 1890 it was 391,422.
a Confederate cruiser fitted out in England in 1862, and sailing at first under the name of the "Oreto." She proceeded immediately to Nassau, in the Bahama Islands, and was twice seized, but eventually escaped. Her name was then changed to the " Florida." For two years she did great damage to the Union cause all along the coast and among the West Indies. She was captured and sunk October 7, 1864, in the Brazilian harbor of Bahia, by the Union vessel "Wachusett," Captain Collins, who surprised her when unprepared for battle.
By John Franklin Jameson
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